the aggregate of technical and mathematical means, methods, and procedures used to simplify and accelerate the solution of labor-consuming problems involving the processing of data (particularly numerical data) by partial or complete automation of the computing process; the branch of engineering that engages in the development, manufacture, and operation of computers.
Problems associated with the calculation of time, the de-termination of the area of plots of land, commercial calculations, and others go back to the ancient periods of human culture. The first primitive devices for mechanizing computations—the Greek abax and the Chinese abacus—and mathematical rules for solving the simplest computational problems appeared hundreds of years before the Common Era. Computational devices such as “Napier’s bones,” the slide rule, and the arithmetical machine of the French scientist B. Pascal (the forerunner of the adding machine) were known as early as the 17th century. The Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th